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Water Science and Engineering

2017, Vol.10 Num.3
Online: 2017-07-30

175 Michael Hartnett, Stephen Nash
High-resolution flood modeling of urban areas using MSN_Flood

Although existing hydraulic models have been used to simulate and predict urban flooding, most of these models are inadequate due to the high spatial resolution required to simulate flows in urban floodplains. Nesting high-resolution subdomains within coarser-resolution models is an efficient solution for enabling simultaneous calculation of flooding due to tides, surges, and high river flows. MSN_Flood has been developed to incorporate moving boundaries around nested domains, permitting alternate flooding and drying along the boundary and in the interior of the domain. Ghost cells adjacent to open boundary cells convert open boundaries, in effect, into internal boundaries. The moving boundary may be multi-segmented and non-continuous, with recirculating flow across the boundary. When combined with a bespoke adaptive interpolation scheme, this approach facilitates a dynamic internal boundary. Based on an alternating-direction semi-implicit finite difference scheme, MSN_Flood was used to hindcast a major flood event in Cork City resulting from the combined pressures of fluvial, tidal, and storm surge processes. The results show that the model is computationally efficient, as the 2-m high-resolution nest is used only in the urban flooded region. Elsewhere, lower-resolution nests are used. The results also show that the model is highly accurate when compared with measured data. The model is capable of incorporating nested sub-domains when the nested boundary is multi-segmented and highly complex with lateral gradients of elevation and velocities. This is a major benefit when modelling urban floodplains at very high resolution.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 175-183 [Abstract] ( 63 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7214KB] ( 108 )
184 Sheng Wu, Dong-sheng Jeng
Numerical modeling of solute transport in deformable unsaturated layered soil

The effect of soil stratification was studied through numerical investigation based on the coupled model of solute transport in deformable unsaturated soil. The theoretical model implied two-way coupled excess pore pressure and soil deformation based on Biot’s consolidation theory as well as a one-way coupled volatile pollutant concentration field developed from the advection-diffusion theory. Embedded in the model, the degree of saturation, fluid compressibility, self-weight of the soil matrix, porosity variance, longitudinal dispersion, and linear sorption were computed. Based on simulation results of a proposed three-layer landfill model using the finite element method, the multi-layer effects are discussed with regard to the hydraulic conductivity, shear modulus, degree of saturation, molecular diffusion coefficient, and thickness of each layer. Generally speaking, contaminants spread faster in a stratified field with a soft and highly permeable top layer; soil parameters of the top layer are more critical than the lower layers but controlling soil thicknesses will alter the results. This numerical investigation showed noticeable impacts of stratified soil properties on solute migration results, demonstrating the importance of correctly modeling layered soil instead of simply assuming the averaged properties across the soil profile.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 184-196 [Abstract] ( 44 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 19043KB] ( 113 )
197 Hashim Isam Jameel Al-Safi, Priyantha Ranjan Sarukkalige
Assessment of future climate change impacts on hydrological behavior of Richmond River Catchment

This study evaluated the impacts of future climate change on the hydrological response of the Richmond River Catchment in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using the conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling approach (the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model). Daily observations of rainfall, temperature, and streamflow and long-term monthly mean potential evapotranspiration from the meteorological and hydrological stations within the catchment for the period of 1972—2014 were used to run, calibrate, and validate the HBV model prior to the streamflow prediction. Future climate signals of rainfall and temperature were extracted from a multi-model ensemble of seven global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) with three regional climate scenarios, A2, A1B, and B1. The calibrated HBV model was then forced with the ensemble mean of the downscaled daily rainfall and temperature to simulate daily future runoff at the catchment outlet for the early part (2016—2043), middle part (2044—2071), and late part (2072—2099) of the 21st century. All scenarios during the future periods present decreasing tendencies of the annual mean streamflow ranging between 1% and 24.3% as compared with the observed period. For the maximum and minimum flows, all scenarios during the early, middle, and late parts of the century revealed significant declining tendencies in the annual mean maximum and minimum streamflows, ranging between 30% and 44.4% relative to the observed period. These findings can assist the water managers and the community of the Richmond River Catchment in managing the usage of future water resources in a more sustainable way.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 197-208 [Abstract] ( 44 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5510KB] ( 94 )
209 Jun-feng Dai, Jia-zhou Chen, Guo-an Lü, Larry C. Brown, Lei Gan
Application of SWAT99.2 to sensitivity analysis of water balance components in unique plots in a hilly region

Although many sensitivity analyses using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) in a complex watershed have been conducted, little attention has been paid to the application potential of the model in unique plots. In addition, sensitivity analysis of percolation and evapotranspiration with SWAT has seldom been undertaken. In this study, SWAT99.2 was calibrated to simulate water balance components for unique plots in Southern China from 2000 to 2001, which included surface runoff, percolation, and evapotranspiration. Twenty-one parameters classified into four categories, including meteorological conditions, topographical characteristics, soil properties, and vegetation attributes, were used for sensitivity analysis through one-at-a-time (OAT) sampling to identify the factor that contributed most to the variance in water balance components. The results were shown to be different for different plots, with parameter sensitivity indices and ranks varying for different water balance components. Water balance components in the broad-leaved forest and natural grass plots were most sensitive to meteorological conditions, less sensitive to vegetation attributes and soil properties, and least sensitive to topographical characteristics. Compared to those in the natural grass plot, water balance components in the broad-leaved forest plot demonstrated higher sensitivity to the maximum stomatal conductance (GSI) and maximum leaf area index (BLAI).

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 209-216 [Abstract] ( 41 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1869KB] ( 74 )
217 Ying-hua Li, Hai-bo Li, Xin-yang Xu, Si-yao Xiao, Si-qi Wang, Shu-cong Xu
Fate of nitrogen in subsurface infiltration system for treating secondary effluent

The concentration of total nitrogen (TN) is reported to vary between 20 and 35 mg/L in domestic wastewater. In raw wastewater, ammonia nitrogen ( ) is the main nitrogen form, accounting for 70% to 82% of the TN concentration. Organic nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen ( ), and nitrate nitrogen ( ) are present as well. For years, due to the lack of regulatory limits on nitrogen concentration in surface waters, nitrogen from secondary effluent has posed a significant threat to the health of aquatic ecosystems. Researchers have made substantial efforts to reduce the nitrogen concentration in secondary effluent. As a kind of advanced wastewater treatment technology, the subsurface infiltration (SI) system has been widely used, owing to its advantages, which include low operation cost, easy maintenance, and low energy consumption. This review discusses the fate of various forms of nitrogen in SI treatment, including organic nitrogen,  ,  , and  . Major biological processes involved in nitrogen removal and the main factors influencing its transformation are suggested. Finally, it is shown that ammonification followed by nitrification-denitrification plays a major role in nitrogen removal. Further research needs to focus on the emission characteristics of gaseous nitrogen (generated from the nitrification, denitrification, and completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite (CANON) processes) with respect to their greenhouse effects.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 217-224 [Abstract] ( 40 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1904KB] ( 95 )
225 Li Gu, Qiu-lan Li, Bo Dai, Zu-lin Hua, Xiao-dong Liu, Ke-jian Chu
Flow patterns and critical criteria of thermally stratified shear flow in braided rivers

Flow characteristics of thermally stratified shear flow in braided rivers are particularly complicated and poorly understood. In this study, a series of typical flow patterns was examined and their critical criteria were determined. Four flow patterns were identified: mixed, locally unstable, continuously stratified, and two-layer flow. Temperature distributions of the four types of flow patterns were analyzed and compared. The critical Froude numbers for unstable flow,  , and stable flow,  , were determined to be 6 and 1, respectively, and comparison of   and   to the peak Froude numbers,   at the outer bank and   at the inner bank along the anabranch, allowed the flow patterns to be assessed. Then, a discriminant based on initial Jeffreys-Keulegan stability parameters was established to distinguish the flow stages from two-layer flow to completely mixed flow. It is indicated that the three critical Jeffreys-Keulegan parameters increased with the diversion angle of braided rivers. Results also show that, compared to the stratified flow in straight and curved channels, it was more difficult for braided stratified flow to maintain as two-layer flow, and it more easily became mixed flow. Consequently, empirical expressions for stability criteria of the thermally stratified shear flow in braided rivers are presented.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 225-235 [Abstract] ( 40 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 9091KB] ( 100 )
236 Xing-xin Chen, Qi-peng Cai, Zhong-han Wu
Experimental and theoretical study of coupled influence of flow velocity increment and particle size on particle retention and release in porous media

Experimental and theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the coupled influence of flow velocity increment and particle size on the retention and release of particles in porous media. Particle release was examined through measurement of changes in effluent particle concentrations, and particle retention was assessed through measurement of the final spatial distribution of particles remaining in the soil columns after the experiments. Particle release curves were simulated using a convection-dispersion model that includes the instantaneous release of the line source. Fitted model parameters were used to gain insights into the mechanisms that control particle retention and release. When the flow velocity increment was 0.0435 cm/s, the peak concentration of particles decreased with increasing flow velocity until the latter approached a critical level, beyond which the particle concentration increased. Particle wedging and fouling were considered the primary mechanisms that controlled particle retention and release beyond the critical particle velocity. In experiments with large flow velocity increments, small particles exhibited lower particle mass fraction than large particles as particle wedging and fouling increased with particle size. The range of longitudinal dispersivity decreased with an increasing particle size and flow velocity increment. Moreover, the mean particle velocity increased with the mean interstitial fluid velocity. The mean particle velocity profile was highly sensitive to the particle size at low velocity increments. In general, particle release rates increased with both flow velocity and velocity increment. The mass of the released particles provides further evidence that particle wedging and fouling are the major factors that control particle release in sand columns.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 236-245 [Abstract] ( 33 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3086KB] ( 91 )
246 Hojat Karami, Saeed Farzin, Mohammad Tavakol Sadrabadi, Hasan Moazeni
Simulation of flow pattern at rectangular lateral intake with different dike and submerged vane scenarios

A comprehensive understanding of the sediment behavior at the entrance of diversion channels requires complete knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior around such structures. Dikes and submerged vanes are typical structures used to control sediment entrainment in the diversion channel. In this study, a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code was calibrated with experimental data and used to evaluate flow patterns, the diversion ratio of discharge, the strength of secondary flow, and dimensions of the vortex inside the channel in various dike and submerged vane installation scenarios. Results show that the diversion ratio of discharge in the diversion channel is dependent on the width of the flow separation plate in the main channel. A dike perpendicular to the flow with a narrowing ratio of 0.20 doubles the ratio of diverted discharge in addition to reducing suspended sediment input to the basin, compared with a no-dike situation, by creating the outer arch conditions. A further increase in the narrowing ratio decreases the diverted discharge. In addition, increasing the longitudinal distance between consecutive vanes ( ) increases the velocity gradient between the vanes and leads to a more severe erosion of the bed, near the vanes.

2017 Vol. 10 (3): 246-255 [Abstract] ( 43 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 8768KB] ( 113 )
Water Science and Engineering
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Edited by:
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

Distributed by:
Editorial Office of Water
Science and Engineering

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