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Water Science and Engineering

2017, Vol.10 Num.1
Online: 2017-01-31

2 Jin-hai Zheng, Sang Sang, Jin-cheng Wang, Chun-yan Zhou, Hong-jun Zhao
Numerical simulation of typhoon-induced storm surge along Jiangsu coast, Part I: Analysis of tropical cyclone

The Tropical Cyclone Best Track Dataset issued by the Shanghai Typhoon Institute (STI) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), for the period from 1949 to 2013, was analyzed, and the typhoons threatening the Jiangsu coast were categorized into three different classes in terms of track, including typhoons making straight landfall, typhoons active in offshore areas, and typhoons moving northward after landfall. On the basis of the 65-year dataset, the typhoon parameters of these three categories, including the central pressure and the maximum wind speed, were investigated. Statistical analysis suggested that the minimum central pressure increased northward and shoreward gradually. The relationship between the maximum wind speed and the minimum central pressure was established through second-order polynomial fitting. Considering typhoons No. 1210, No. 0012, and No. 9711 as the basic typhoons, ten hypothetical cyclones with typical tracks and minimum central pressure occurring during the period from 1949 to 2013 were designed, providing the driving conditions for numerical simulation of typhoon-induced storm surges along the Jiangsu coast.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 2-7 [Abstract] ( 142 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 6862KB] ( 305 )
8 Jin-hai Zheng, Jin-cheng Wang, Chun-yan Zhou, Hong-jun Zhao, Sang Sang
Numerical simulation of typhoon-induced storm surge along Jiangsu coast, Part II: Calculation of storm surge

The Jiangsu coastal area is located in central-eastern China and is well known for complicated dynamics with large-scale radial sand ridge systems. It is therefore a challenge to simulate typhoon-induced storm surges in this area. In this study, a two-dimensional astronomical tide and storm surge coupling model was established to simulate three typical types of typhoons in the area. The Holland parameter model was used to simulate the wind field and wind pressure of typhoon and the Japanese 55-year reanalysis data were added as the background wind field. The offshore boundary information was provided by an improved Northwest Pacific Ocean Tide Model. Typhoon-induced storm surges along the Jiangsu coast were calculated based on analysis of wind data from 1949 to 2013 and the spatial distribution of the maximum storm surge levels under different types of typhoons, providing references for the design of sea dikes and planning for control of coastal disasters.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 8-16 [Abstract] ( 110 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 8206KB] ( 200 )
17 Stefano Pagliara, Michele Palermo
Scour process caused by multiple subvertical non-crossing jets

The scour process induced by plunging jets is an important topic for hydraulic engineers. In recent decades, several researchers have developed new strategies and methodologies to control the scour morphology, including different jet arrangements and structures located in the stilling basin. It has been found that multiple jets can cause less scouring than single plunging jets. Based on this evidence, this study aimed to investigate the equilibrium morphology caused by multiple non-crossing jets. A dedicated laboratory model was built and experimental tests were carried out under different combinations of jet inclination angles, by varying the tailwater level and the virtual crossing point location, which was set below the original channel bed level. It was experimentally shown that the equilibrium scour morphology depends on the jet discharge, the differences in non-crossing jet inclination angles, the downstream water level, and the distance of the virtual crossing point from the original channel bed level. In particular, the last parameter was found to be one of the most influential parameters, because of the resulting flow patterns inside the water body. Furthermore, the analysis of experimental evidence allowed for a complete and detailed classification of the scour hole typologies. Three different scour typologies were distinguished and classified. Finally, based on previous studies, two novel relationships have been proposed to predict both the maximum scour depth and length within a large range of hydraulic and geometric parameters.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 17-24 [Abstract] ( 104 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4139KB] ( 203 )
25 Tong-chao Nan, Ji-chun Wu
Application of ensemble H-infinity filter in aquifer characterization and comparison to ensemble Kalman filter

Though the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been successfully applied in many areas, it requires explicit and accurate model and measurement error information, leading to difficulties in practice when only limited information on error mechanisms of observational instruments for subsurface systems is accessible. To handle the uncertain errors, we applied a robust data assimilation algorithm, the ensemble H-infinity filter (EnHF), to estimation of aquifer hydraulic heads and conductivities in a flow model with uncertain/correlated observational errors. The impacts of spatial and temporal correlations in measurements were analyzed, and the performance of EnHF was compared with that of the EnKF. The results show that both EnHF and EnKF are able to estimate hydraulic conductivities properly when observations are free of error; EnHF can provide robust estimates of hydraulic conductivities even when no observational error information is provided. In contrast, the estimates of EnKF seem noticeably undermined because of correlated errors and inaccurate error statistics, and filter divergence was observed. It is concluded that EnHF is an efficient assimilation algorithm when observational errors are unknown or error statistics are inaccurate.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 25-35 [Abstract] ( 114 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 9012KB] ( 187 )
36 Jun Li, Chang-ming Liu
Improvement of LCM model and determination of model parameters at watershed scale for flood events in Hongde Basin of China

Considering the fact that the original two-parameter LCM model can only be used to investigate rainfall losses during the runoff period because the initial abstraction is not included, the LCM model was redefined as a three-parameter model, including the initial abstraction coefficient  , the initial abstraction  , and the rainfall loss coefficient R. The improved LCM model is superior to the original two-parameter model, which only includes r and R, where r is the initial rainfall loss index and can be calculated with   using the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method, with  . The trial method was used to determine the parameter values of the improved LCM model at the watershed scale for 15 flood events in the Hongde Basin in China. The results show that larger r values are associated with smaller R values, and the parameter R ranges widely from 0.5 to 2.0. In order to improve the practicability of the LCM model,   with   is reasonable for simplifying calculation. When the LCM model is applied to arid and semi-arid regions, rainfall without yielding runoff should be deducted from the total rainfall for more accurate estimation of rainfall-runoff.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 36-42 [Abstract] ( 117 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5844KB] ( 193 )
43 Qin Liu, Guo-hua Fang, Hong-bin Sun, Xue-wen Wu
Joint optimization scheduling for water conservancy projects in complex river networks

In this study, we simulated water flow in a water conservancy project consisting of various hydraulic structures, such as sluices, pumping stations, hydropower stations, ship locks, and culverts, and developed a multi-period and multi-variable joint optimization scheduling model for flood control, drainage, and irrigation. In this model, the number of sluice holes, pump units, and hydropower station units to be opened were used as decision variables, and different optimization objectives and constraints were considered. This model was solved with improved genetic algorithms and verified using the Huaian Water Conservancy Project as an example. The results show that the use of the joint optimization scheduling led to a 10% increase in the power generation capacity and a 15% reduction in the total energy consumption. The change in the water level was reduced by 0.25 m upstream of the Yundong Sluice, and by 50% downstream of pumping stations No. 1, No. 2, and No.4. It is clear that the joint optimization scheduling proposed in this study can effectively improve power generation capacity of the project, minimize operating costs and energy consumption, and enable more stable operation of various hydraulic structures. The results may provide references for the management of water conservancy projects in complex river networks.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 43-52 [Abstract] ( 126 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 16587KB] ( 247 )
53 Mehdi Hassanvand Jamadi, Abolghasem Alighardashi
Application of Froude dynamic similitude in anaerobic baffled reactors to prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a prototype reactor using a model reactor

An anaerobic baffled reactor is a system developed in recent decades and has been used as part of the treatment of high-strength wastewater. Since the function of this system is based on its hydrodynamic features, hydrodynamics and the regime of the flow through the reactor are crucial. In this study, a prototype reactor with eight chambers, which have a total volume of 48 L, and a model reactor, whose dimensions were half of those of the prototype reactor, were used. The Froude dynamic similitude in these reactors was investigated. The results show that the curve dimensionless variances were 0.089 and 0.096 for the prototype and model reactors, respectively, the short-circuiting indices were 0.483 and 0.489 for the prototype and model reactors, respectively, the effective volume and short-circuiting index measurement error was 1%, the hydraulic efficiency error was 2%, and the Peclet and dispersion number error was 7%. Most of the compared indices were close to one another in value. Therefore, the model reactor can be used based on the Froude dynamic similitude to determine hydrodynamic characteristics of a baffled reactor at a full scale.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 53-58 [Abstract] ( 103 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2050KB] ( 192 )
59 Zhi-lin Sun, Sen-jun Huang, Jian-ge Jiao, Hui Nie, Mei Lu
Effects of cluster land reclamation projects on storm surge in Jiaojiang Estuary, China

Variations in coastline geometry caused by coastal engineering affect tides, storm surges, and storm tides. Three cluster land reclamation projects have been planned for construction in the Jiaojiang Estuary during the period from 2011 to 2023. They will cause significant changes in coastline geometry. In this study, a surge-tide coupled model was established based on a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). A series of numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of variations in coastline geometry on tides, storm surges, and storm tides. This model was calibrated using data observed at the Haimen and Ruian gauge stations and then used to reproduce the tides, storm surges, and storm tides in the Jiaojiang Estuary caused by Typhoon Winnie in 1997. Results show that the high tide level, peak storm surge, and high storm tide level at the Haimen Gauge Station increased along with the completion of reclamation projects, and the maximum increments caused by the third project were 0.13 m, 0.50 m, and 0.43 m, respectively. The envelopes with maximum storm tide levels of 7.0 m and 8.0 m inside the river mouth appeared to move seaward, with the latter shifting 1.8 km, 3.3 km, and 4.4 km due to the first project, second project, and third project, respectively. The results achieved in this study contribute to reducing the effects of, and preventing storm disasters after the land reclamation in the Jiaojiang Estuary.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 59-69 [Abstract] ( 93 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 18025KB] ( 212 )
70 Yan Xiang, Shu-yan Fu, Kai Zhu, Hui Yuan, Zhi-yuan Fang
Seepage safety monitoring model for an earth rock dam under influence of high-impact typhoons based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

Extreme hydrological events induced by typhoons in reservoir areas have presented severe challenges to the safe operation of hydraulic structures. Based on analysis of the seepage characteristics of an earth rock dam, a novel seepage safety monitoring model was constructed in this study. The nonlinear influence processes of the antecedent reservoir water level and rainfall were assumed to follow normal distributions. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to optimize the model parameters so as to raise the fitting accuracy. In addition, a mutation factor was introduced to simulate the sudden increase in the piezometric level induced by short-duration heavy rainfall and the possible historical extreme reservoir water level during a typhoon. In order to verify the efficacy of this model, the earth rock dam of the Siminghu Reservoir was used as an example. The piezometric level at the SW1-2 measuring point during Typhoon Fitow in 2013 was fitted with the present model, and a corresponding theoretical expression was established. Comparison of fitting results of the piezometric level obtained from the present statistical model and traditional statistical model with monitored values during the typhoon shows that the present model has a higher fitting accuracy and can simulate the uprush feature of the seepage pressure during the typhoon perfectly.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 70-77 [Abstract] ( 109 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 10034KB] ( 254 )
78 Xin Wang, Ya-an Hu, Shao-ze Luo, Lu-chen Zhang, Bo Wu
Prototype observation and influencing factors of environmental vibration induced by flood discharge

Due to a wide range of field vibration problems caused by flood discharge at the Xiangjiaba hydropower station, vibration characteristics and influencing factors were investigated based on prototype observation. The results indicate that field vibrations caused by flood discharge have distinctive characteristics of constancy, low frequency, small amplitude, and randomness with impact, which significantly differ from the common high-frequency vibration characteristics. Field vibrations have a main frequency of about 0.5 to 3.0 Hz and the characteristics of long propagation distance and large-scale impact. The vibration of a stilling basin slab runs mainly in the vertical direction. The vibration response of the guide wall perpendicular to the flow is significantly stronger than it is in other directions and decreases linearly downstream along the guide wall. The vibration response of the underground turbine floor is mainly caused by the load of units operation. Urban environmental vibration has particular distribution characteristics and change patterns, and is greatly affected by discharge, scheduling modes, and geological conditions. Along with the increase of the height of residential buildings, vibration responses show a significant amplification effect. The horizontal and vertical vibrations of the 7th floor are, respectively, about 6 times and 1.5 times stronger than the corresponding vibrations of the 1st floor. The vibration of a large-scale chemical plant presents the combined action of flood discharge and working machines. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to reduce the low-frequency environmental vibrations. Optimization of the discharge scheduling mode is one of the effective measures of reducing the flow impact loads at present. Choosing reasonable dam sites is crucial.

2017 Vol. 10 (1): 78-85 [Abstract] ( 110 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4749KB] ( 204 )
Water Science and Engineering
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Edited by:
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

Distributed by:
Editorial Office of Water
Science and Engineering

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