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Water Science and Engineering

2017, Vol.10 Num.4
Online: 2017-10-30

257 Zong-xue Xu, Lei Li, Jie Zhao
A distributed eco-hydrological model and its application

Eco-hydrological processes in arid areas are the focus of many hydrological and water resources studies. However, the hydrological cycle and the ecological system have usually been considered separately in most previous studies, and the correlation between the two has not been fully understood. Interdisciplinary research on eco-hydrological processes using multidisciplinary knowledge has been insufficient. In order to quantitatively analyze and evaluate the interaction between the ecosystem and the hydrological cycle, a new kind of eco-hydrological model, the ecology module for a grid-based integrated surface and groundwater model (Eco-GISMOD), is proposed with a two-way coupling approach, which combines the ecological model (EPIC) and hydrological model (GISMOD) by considering water exchange in the soil layer. Water interaction between different soil layers is simply described through a generalized physical process in various situations. A special method was used to simulate the water exchange between plants and the soil layer, taking into account precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil water replenishment, and root water uptake. In order to evaluate the system performance, the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China was selected for a case study. The results show that forests and crops were generally growing well with sufficient water supply, but water shortages, especially in the summer, inhibited the growth of grass and caused grass degradation. This demonstrates that water requirements and water consumption for different kinds of vegetation can be estimated by considering the water-supply rules of Eco-GISMOD, which will be helpful for the planning and management of water resources in the future.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 257-264 [Abstract] ( 149 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3124KB] ( 393 )
265 Jing-ming Hou, Qiu-hua Liang, Gang Wang, Reinhard Hinkelmann
Preface for special section on flood modeling and resilience
2017 Vol. 10 (4): 265-266 [Abstract] ( 94 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1661KB] ( 197 )
267 Jing-ming Hou, Run Wang, Hai-xiao Jing, Xia Zhang, Qiu-hua Liang, Yan-yan Di
An efficient dynamic uniform Cartesian grid system for inundation modeling

A dynamic uniform Cartesian grid system was developed in order to reduce the computational time in inundation simulation using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme. The reduction is achieved by excluding redundant dry cells, which cannot be effectively avoided with a conventional Cartesian uniform grid system, as the wet area is unknown before computation. The new grid system expands dynamically with wetting, through addition of new cells according to moving wet-dry fronts. The new grid system is straightforward in implementation. Its application in a field-scale flood simulation shows that the new grid system is able to produce the same results as the conventional grid, but the computational efficiency is fairly improved.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 267-274 [Abstract] ( 150 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7733KB] ( 230 )
275 Ilhan ?zgen , Jia-heng Zhao, Dong-fang Liang, Reinhard Hinkelmann
Wave propagation speeds and source term influences in single and integral porosity shallow water equations

In urban flood modeling, so-called porosity shallow water equations (PSWEs), which conceptually account for unresolved structures, e.g., buildings, are a promising approach to addressing high CPU times associated with state-of-the-art explicit numerical methods. The PSWE can be formulated with a single porosity term, referred to as the single porosity shallow water model (SP model), which accounts for both the reduced storage in the cell and the reduced conveyance, or with two porosity terms: one accounting for the reduced storage in the cell and another accounting for the reduced conveyance. The latter form is referred to as an integral or anisotropic porosity shallow water model (AP model). The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in wave propagation speeds of the SP model and the AP model and the implications of numerical model results. First, augmented Roe-type solutions were used to assess the influence of the source terms appearing in both models. It is shown that the different source terms have different influences on the stability of the models. Second, four computational test cases were presented and the numerical models were compared. It is observed in the eigenvalue-based analysis as well as in the computational test cases that the models converge if the conveyance porosity in the AP model is close to the storage porosity. If the porosity values differ significantly, the AP model yields different wave propagation speeds and numerical fluxes from those of the BP model. In this study, the ratio between the conveyance and storage porosities was determined to be the most significant parameter.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 275-286 [Abstract] ( 124 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5229KB] ( 159 )
287 Jia-heng Zhao, Ilhan ?zgen, Dong-fang Liang, Reinhard Hinkelmann
Comparison of depth-averaged concentration and bed load flux sediment transport models of dam-break flow

This paper presents numerical simulations of dam-break flow over a movable bed. Two different mathematical models were compared: a fully coupled formulation of shallow water equations with erosion and deposition terms (a depth-averaged concentration flux model), and shallow water equations with a fully coupled Exner equation (a bed load flux model). Both models were discretized using the cell-centered finite volume method, and a second-order Godunov-type scheme was used to solve the equations. The numerical flux was calculated using a Harten, Lax, and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the contact wave restored (HLLC). A novel slope source term treatment that considers the density change was introduced to the depth-averaged concentration flux model to obtain higher-order accuracy. A source term that accounts for the sediment flux was added to the bed load flux model to reflect the influence of sediment movement on the momentum of the water. In a one-dimensional test case, a sensitivity study on different model parameters was carried out. For the depth-averaged concentration flux model, Manning’s coefficient and sediment porosity values showed an almost linear relationship with the bottom change, and for the bed load flux model, the sediment porosity was identified as the most sensitive parameter. The capabilities and limitations of both model concepts are demonstrated in a benchmark experimental test case dealing with dam-break flow over variable bed topography.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 287-294 [Abstract] ( 134 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3755KB] ( 142 )
295 Gang Wang, Zhong-bin Sun, Jun-liang Gao, Xiao-zhou Ma
Numerical study of edge waves using extended Boussinesq equations

An edge wave numerical model was developed based on extended Boussinesq equations with the internal wave-generation method. The form of edge waves near a seawall was chosen as the input signal in order to avoid treatment of the moving shoreline on a sloping beach. As there was an energy transfer between different edge wave modes, not only the target mode but also other modes appeared in the simulations. Due to the nonlinear effect, the simulation results for mode-0 edge waves were slightly modulated by mode-1 and mode-2 waves. As the magnitudes of these higher-mode waves are not significantly related to those of the target mode, the internal wave-generation method in Boussinesq equations can produce high-quality edge waves. The numerical model was used to investigate the nonlinear properties of standing edge waves, and the numerical results were in strong agreement with theory.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 295-302 [Abstract] ( 125 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3668KB] ( 168 )
303 Xi-jun Lai, Zi-ming Wang
Flood management of Dongting Lake after operation of Three Gorges Dam

Full operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) reduces flood risk of the middle and lower parts of the Yangtze River Basin. However, Dongting Lake, which is located in the Yangtze River Basin, is still at high risk for potentially severe flooding in the future. The effects of the TGD on flood processes were investigated using a hydrodynamic model. The 1998 and 2010 flood events before and after the operation of the TGD, respectively, were analyzed. The numerical results show that the operation of the TGD changes flood processes, including the timing and magnitude of flood peaks in Dongting Lake. The TGD can effectively reduce the flood level in Dongting Lake, which is mainly caused by the flood water from the upper reach of the Yangtze River. This is not the case, however, for floods mainly induced by flood water from four main rivers in the catchment. In view of this, a comprehensive strategy for flood management in Dongting Lake is required. Non-engineering measures, such as warning systems and combined operation of the TGD and other reservoirs in the catchment, as well as traditional engineering measures, should be further improved. Meanwhile, a sustainable philosophy for flood control, including natural flood management and lake restoration, is recommended to reduce the flood risk.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 303-310 [Abstract] ( 151 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3955KB] ( 173 )
311 Hai-bo Yang, En-chong Li, Yong Zhao, Qiu-hua Liang
Effect of water-sediment regulation and its impact on coastline and suspended sediment concentration in Yellow River Estuary

Implementation of the water-sediment regulation (WSR) scheme, mainly focused on solving the sedimentation problems of reservoirs and the lower reaches of the Yellow River, has inevitably influenced the sediment distribution and coastal morphology of the Yellow River Estuary (YRE). Using coastline delineation and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) retrieval methods, this paper investigated the water and sediment changes, identified the detailed inter-annual and intra-annual variations of coastline and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the normal period (NP: 1986-2001, before and after the flood season) and WSR period (WSRP: 2002-2013, before and after WSR). The results indicate that (1) the sedimentation in the low reaches of the Yellow River turned into erosion from 2002, (2) the inter-annual coastline changes were divided into the accretion stage (1986–1996), slow erosion stage (1996–2002), and slow accretion stage (2002–2013), (3) the intra-annual coastline extension in the river mouth occurred in most years of the WSRP, and (4) the mean intra-annual accretion area was 0.789 km2 in the NP and 4.73 km2 in the WSRP, and the mean SSC increased from 238 mg/L to 293 mg/L in the NP and from 192 mg/L to 264 mg/L in the WSRP.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 311-319 [Abstract] ( 124 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 6620KB] ( 206 )
320 Jing Li, Zhan-bin Li, Meng-jing Guo, Peng Li, Sheng-dong Cheng
Effects of urban grass coverage on rainfall-induced runoff in Xi’an loess region in China

In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the regulatory effects of grass coverage on rainfall-runoff processes. A total of 80 grass blocks planted with well-grown Manila grass, together with their root systems, were sampled from an eastern suburban area of Xi’an City in the northwest arid area of China and sent to a laboratory for rainfall simulation experiments. The runoff and infiltration processes of a slope with different grass coverage ratios and vegetation patterns were analyzed. The results show that the runoff coefficient decreases with the increase of the grass coverage ratio, and the influence of grass coverage on the reduction of runoff shows a high degree of spatial variation. At a constant grass coverage ratio, as the area of grass coverage moves downward, the runoff coefficient, total runoff, and flood peak discharge gradually decrease, and the flood peak occurs later. With the increase of the grass coverage ratio, the flood peak discharge gradually decreases, and the flood peak occurs later as well. In conclusion, a high grass coverage ratio with the area of grass coverage located at the lower part of the slope will lead to satisfactory regulatory effects on rainfall-induced runoff.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 320-325 [Abstract] ( 104 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3825KB] ( 163 )
326 Zhen-dong Fang, Kai Zhang, Jie Liu, Jun-yu Fan, Zhi-wei Zhao
Fenton-like oxidation of azo dye in aqueous solution using magnetic Fe3O4-MnO2 nanocomposites as catalysts

In order to overcome the drawback of the low degree of separation from an aqueous solution of MnO2, Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites were used as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts for the removal of acid orange 7. On the basis of the catalyst characterization, the catalytic ability of the as-synthesized nanocomposites was examined. The results showed that Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites had greater catalytic ability than Fe3O4 or MnO2 used alone. Meanwhile, the catalyst dosage, H2O2 dosage, temperature, and initial pH had significant effects on the removal of acid orange 7. A high degree of stability and reusability were exhibited by Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites. Both HO• and HO2• were generated in the reaction and HO• was the main radical for the removal of acid orange 7. A mechanism for H2O2 catalytic decomposition using Fe3O4-MnO2 core-shell nanocomposites to produce HO• is proposed.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 326-333 [Abstract] ( 98 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3349KB] ( 206 )
334 Jing-jing Xu, Jing-wen Yang, Pu Zhang, Quan Yuan, Yan-hong Zhu, Yu Wang,
Preparation of 2D square-like Bi2S3-BiOCl heterostructures with enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic performance for dye pollutant degradation

A series of Bi2S3-BiOCl composites with two-dimensional (2D) square-like structures were prepared via a two-step anion exchange route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to investigate the properties of the as-prepared Bi2S3-BiOCl heterostructures. The coupling of BiOCl and Bi2S3 induced enhanced photoabsorption efficiency and bandgap narrowing. A reactive brilliant red X-3B dye was used as a contaminant to test the photocatalytic activity of the obtained Bi2S3-BiOCl samples under visible light irradiation. The sample Bi2S3-BiOCl with a mass ratio of 8:4 exhibited the highest photodegradation efficiency, which was six times higher than that of pure BiOCl. In addition, a mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity is proposed.

2017 Vol. 10 (4): 334-339 [Abstract] ( 107 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3765KB] ( 172 )
Water Science and Engineering
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Edited by:
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

Distributed by:
Editorial Office of Water
Science and Engineering

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