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Water Science and Engineering

2018, Vol.11 Num.2
Online: 2018-04-30

89 Ming Ye, Fan Zhang, Yong-zhen Pei, Guo-ping Tang, Ahmed Elshall
Impacts of prior parameter distributions on Bayesian evaluation of groundwater model complexity

This study used the marginal likelihood and Bayesian posterior model probability for evaluation of model complexity in order to avoid using over-complex models for numerical simulations. It focused on investigation of the impacts of prior parameter distributions (involved in calculating the marginal likelihood) on the evaluation of model complexity. We argue that prior parameter distributions should define the parameter space in which numerical simulations are made. New perspectives on the prior parameter distribution and posterior model probability were demonstrated in an example of groundwater solute transport modeling with four models, each simulating four column experiments. The models had different levels of complexity in terms of their model structures and numbers of calibrated parameters. The posterior model probability was evaluated for four cases with different prior parameter distributions. While the distributions substantially impacted model ranking, the model ranking in each case was reasonable for the specific circumstances in which numerical simulations were made. For evaluation of model complexity, it is thus necessary to determine the parameter spaces for modeling, which can be done by conducting numerical simulation and using engineering judgment based on understanding of the system being studied.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 89-100 [Abstract] ( 36 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3741KB] ( 96 )
101 Bing-qing Lu, Yong Zhang, Hong-guang Sun, Chun-miao Zheng
Lagrangian simulation of multi-step and rate-limited chemical reactions in multi-dimensional porous media

Management of groundwater resources and remediation of groundwater pollution require reliable quantification of contaminant dynamics in natural aquifers, which can involve complex chemical dynamics and challenge traditional modeling approaches. The kinetics of chemical reactions in groundwater are well known to be controlled by medium heterogeneity and reactant mixing, motivating the development of particle-based Lagrangian approaches. Previous Lagrangian solvers have been limited to fundamental bimolecular reactions in typically one-dimensional porous media. In contrast to other existing studies, this study developed a fully Lagrangian framework, which was used to simulate diffusion-controlled, multi-step reactions in one-, two-, and three-dimensional porous media. The interaction radius of a reactant molecule, which controls the probability of reaction, was derived by the agent-based approach for both irreversible and reversible reactions. A flexible particle tracking scheme was then developed to build trajectories for particles undergoing mixing-limited, multi-step reactions. The simulated particle dynamics were checked against the kinetics for diffusion-controlled reactions and thermodynamic well-mixed reactions in one- and two-dimensional domains. Applicability of the novel simulator was further tested by (1) simulating precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals in a two-dimensional medium, and (2) quantifying multi-step chemical reactions observed in the laboratory. The flexibility of the Lagrangian simulator allows further refinement to capture complex transport affecting chemical mixing and hence reactions.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 101-113 [Abstract] ( 36 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4243KB] ( 66 )
114 Jia-zhong Qian, Xiu-xuan Wang, Lei Ma, Long-ping Wang, Jian-kui Liu, Zhang-xian
Simulation of denitrification in groundwater from Chaohu Lake Catchment, China

The eutrophication of Chaohu Lake in China is mainly attributed to nitrate inflow from non-point sources in the lake catchment. In this study, biological nitrate reduction from groundwater in the Chaohu Lake Catchment was investigated under laboratory conditions in a continuous up-flow reactor. Sodium acetate served as the carbon source and electron donor. Results showed that a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio of 3:1 and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8 d could achieve the most rapid nitrate nitrogen ( ) depletion (from 100 mg/L to 1 mg/L within 120 h). This rate was confirmed when field groundwater was tested in the reactor, in which a   removal rate of 97.71% was achieved (from 60.35 mg/L to 1.38 mg/L within 120 h). Different levels of the initial   concentration (30, 50, 70, and 100 mg/L) showed observable influence on the denitrification rates, with an overall average   removal efficiency of 98.25% at 120 h. Nitrite nitrogen ( ) accumulated in the initial 12 h, and then kept decreasing, until it reached 0.0254 mg/L at 120 h. Compared with the initial value, there was a slight accumulation of 0.04 mg/L for the ammonia nitrogen ( ) concentration in the effluent, which is, however, less than the limit value. These results can provide a reference for evaluating performance of denitrification in situ.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 114-119 [Abstract] ( 48 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3004KB] ( 69 )
120 Jing-yan Gao, Xue-jing Wang, Yan Zhang, Hai-long Li
Estimating submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient inputs into Daya Bay during spring using radium isotopes

Daya Bay, a semi-enclosed bay in the South China Sea, is well known for its aquaculture, agriculture, and tourism. In recent years, many environmental problems have emerged, such as the frequent (almost yearly) occurrence of harmful algal blooms and red tides. Therefore, investigations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and associated nutrient inputs to this bay have important theoretical and practical significance to the protection of the ecological system. Such a study was conducted using short-lived radium isotopes 223Ra and 224Ra. The estimated SGD fluxes were 2.89 × 107 m3/d and 3.05 × 107 m3/d based on 223Ra and 224Ra, respectively. The average SGD flux was about 35 times greater than that of all the local rivers. The SGD-associated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) fluxes ranged from 1.95 × 106 to 2.06 × 106 mol/d and from 5.72 × 104 to 6.04 × 104 mol/d, respectively. The average ratio of DIN to DIP fluxes in SGD was 34, much higher than that in local rivers (about 6.46), and about twice as large as the Redfield ratio (16). Our results indicate that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to the bay and may cause frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms. This study provides baseline data for evaluating potential environmental effects due to urbanization and economic growth in this region.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 120-130 [Abstract] ( 36 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4110KB] ( 51 )
131 Chong Ma, Hong-bin Zhan,Wen-min Yao, Hua-zhou Li
A new shear rheological model for a soft interlayer with varying water content

The rheological behavior of a soft interlayer is critical to understanding slope stability, which is closely related to the water content of the soft interlayer. This study used the soft interlayer of the Permian Maokou Formation in Southwest China as an example to perform ring shear creep tests with different water content amounts. The effect of water content on the creep properties of the soft interlayer was analyzed, and a new shear rheological model was established. This research produced several findings. First, the ring shear creep deformation of the soft interlayer samples varied with the water content and the maximum instantaneous shear strain increment occurred near the saturated water content. As the water content increased, the cumulative creep increment of the samples increased. Second, the water content significantly affected the long-term strength of the soft interlayer, which decreased with the increase of water content, exhibiting a negative linear correlation. Third, a constitutive equation for the new rheological model was derived, and through fitting of the ring shear creep test data, the validity and applicability of the constitutive equation were proven. This study has developed an important foundation for studying the long-term deformation characteristics of a soft interlayer with varying different water content.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 131-138 [Abstract] ( 41 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2340KB] ( 71 )
139 Yi-ben Cheng, Hong-bin Zhan, Wen-bin Yang, Fang Bao
Deep soil water recharge response to precipitation in Mu Us Sandy Land of China

Soil water is the main form of water in desert areas, and its primary source is precipitation, which has a vital impact on the changes in soil moisture and plays an important role in deep soil water recharge (DSWR) in sandy areas. This study investigated the soil water response of mobile sand dunes to precipitation in a semi-arid sandy area of China. Precipitation and soil moisture sensors were used to simultaneously monitor the precipitation and the soil water content (SWC) dynamics of the upper 200-cm soil layer of mobile sand dunes located at the northeastern edge of the Mu Us Sandy Land of China in 2013. The data were used to analyze the characteristics of SWC, infiltration, and eventually DSWR. The results show that the accumulated precipitation (494 mm) from April 1 to November 1 of 2013 significantly influenced SWC at soil depths of 0 to 200 cm. When SWC in the upper 200-cm soil layer was relatively low (6.49%), the wetting front associated with 53.8 mm of accumulated precipitation could reach the 200-cm deep soil layer. When the SWC of the upper 200-cm soil layer was relatively high (10.22%), the wetting front associated with the 24.2 mm of accumulated precipitation could reach the upper 200-cm deep soil layer. Of the accumulated 494-mm precipitation in 2013, 103.2 mm of precipitation eventually became DSWR, accounting for 20.9% of the precipitation of that year. The annual soil moisture increase was 54.26 mm in 2013. Accurate calculation of DSWR will have important theoretical and practical significance for desert water resources assessment and ecological construction

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 139-146 [Abstract] ( 42 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1534KB] ( 67 )
147 Zhuo Zhang, Hua-ming Guo, Zhen Wang
Differences in major ions as well as hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of sediment pore water and lake water

Isotopic and chemical compositions of pore water (PW) are highly relevant to environmental and forensic study. Five lake water (LW) samples and five sediment samples were collected to investigate the effects of pore sizes of sediments on PW chemistry and stable isotopes and determine mechanisms controlling their variations. Six pore water fractions were extracted from different-sized pores in each sediment sample at six sequential centrifugal speeds for chemical and isotopic analysis. The sediments consisted mainly of quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of PW are mainly controlled by the overlying LW, although the lag effect of exchange between overlying LW and PW results in isotopic differences in the case that recharge of LW is quicker than isotopic exchange in PW. Identical isotopic compositions of PW from sediment with different pore sizes indicate that isotopic exchange of water molecules with different pore sizes would be a quick process. The ratio of average total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration of PW to TDS concentration of LW shows a strong relationship with adsorption capacity of sediments, demonstrating that remobilization of ions bound to sediments mainly causes a chemical shift from LW to PW. Concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl– in PW remain unchanged, while concentrations of Na+, K+, and   slightly increase with decreasing pore size. Chemical differences of PW from sediment with different pore sizes are governed by ion adsorption properties and surface characteristics of different-sized particles.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 147-156 [Abstract] ( 42 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5767KB] ( 80 )
157 Mohammad Mehedi Hasan , Guido Wyseure
Impact of climate change on hydropower generation in Rio Jubones Basin, Ecuador

This study attempted to use the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), integrated with geographic information systems (GIS), for assessment of climate change impact on hydropower generation. This methodology of climate change impact modeling was developed and demonstrated through application to a hydropower plant in the Rio Jubones Basin in Ecuador. ArcSWAT 2012 was used to develop a model for simulating the river flow. The model parameters were calibrated and validated on a monthly scale with respect to the hydro-meteorological inputs observed from 1985 to 1991 and from 1992 to 1998, respectively. Statistical analyses produced Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSEs) of 0.66 and 0.61 for model calibration and validation, respectively, which were considered acceptable. Numerical simulation with the model indicated that climate change could alter the seasonal flow regime of the basin, and the hydropower potential could change due to the changing climate in the future. Scenario analysis indicates that, though the hydropower generation will increase in the wet season, the plant will face a significant power shortage during the dry season, up to 13.14% from the reference scenario, as a consequence of a 17% reduction of streamflow under an assumption of a 2.9°C increase in temperature and a 15% decrease in rainfall. Overall, this study showed that hydrological processes are realistically modeled with SWAT and the model can be a useful tool for predicting the impact of climate change.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 157-166 [Abstract] ( 48 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3519KB] ( 92 )
167 Zohreh Sheikh Khozani, Hossein Bonakdari, Isa Ebtehaj
An expert system for predicting shear stress distribution in circular open channels using gene expression programming

The shear stress distribution in circular channels was modeled in this study using gene expression programming (GEP). 173 sets of reliable data were collected under four flow conditions for use in the training and testing stages. The effect of input variables on GEP modeling was studied and 15 different GEP models with individual, binary, ternary, and quaternary input combinations were investigated. The sensitivity analysis results demonstrate that dimensionless parameter y/P, where y is the transverse coordinate, and P is the wetted perimeter, is the most influential parameter with regard to the shear stress distribution in circular channels. GEP model 10, with the parameter y/P and Reynolds number (Re) as inputs, outperformed the other GEP models, with a coefficient of determination of 0.7814 for the testing data set. An equation was derived from the best GEP model and its results were compared with an artificial neural network (ANN) model and an equation based on the Shannon entropy proposed by other researchers. The GEP model, with an average RMSE of 0.0301, exhibits superior performance over the Shannon entropy-based equation, with an average RMSE of 0.1049, and the ANN model, with an average RMSE of 0.2815 for all flow depths.

2018 Vol. 11 (2): 167-176 [Abstract] ( 73 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2366KB] ( 75 )
Water Science and Engineering
Quarterly:(Start 2008)
ISSN: 1674-2370
CN: 32-1785/TV
Edited by:
Editorial Board of Water
Science and Engineering

Distributed by:
Editorial Office of Water
Science and Engineering

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