Water Science and Engineering 2017, 10(2) 125-133 DOI:   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2017.05.003  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

Current Issue | Archive | Search                                                            [Print]   [Close]
Information and Service
This Article
Supporting info
Service and feedback
Email this article to a colleague
Add to Bookshelf
Add to Citation Manager
Cite This Article
Email Alert
Mass diagram analysis
Non-potable water demand
Reservoir volume optimization
Rooftop catchment
Rainwater harvesting
Zinat Komeh
Hadi Memarian
Seyed Mohammad Tajbakhsh
Article by Zinat Komeh
Article by Hadi Memarian
Article by Seyed Mohammad Tajbakhsh

Reservoir volume optimization and performance evaluation of rooftop catchment systems in arid regions: A case study of Birjand, Iran

Zinat Komeh*, Hadi Memarian, Seyed Mohammad Tajbakhsh

Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175, Iran


This study evaluated the performance of rooftop catchment systems in securing non-potable water supply in Birjand, located in an arid area in southeastern Iran. The rooftop catchment systems at seven study sites of different residential buildings were simulated for dry, normal, and wet water years, using 31-year rainfall records. The trial and error approach and mass diagram method were employed to optimize the volume of reservoirs in five different operation scenarios. Results showed that, during the dry water year from 2000 to 2001, for reservoirs with volumes of 200 to 20000 L, the proportion of days that could be secured for non-portable water supply was on average computed to be 16.4%−32.6% across all study sites. During the normal water year from 2009 to 2010 and the wet water year from 1995 to 1996, for reservoirs with volumes of 200 to 20000 L, the proportions were 20.8%−69.6% and 26.8%−80.3%, respectively. Therefore, a rooftop catchment system showed a high potential to meet a significant portion of non-potable water demand in the Birjand climatic region. Reservoir volume optimization using the mass diagram method produced results consistent with those obtained with the trial and error approach, except at sites #1, #2, and #5. At these sites, the trial and error approach performed better than the mass diagram method due to relatively high water consumption. It is concluded that the rooftop catchment system is applicable under the same climatic conditions as the study area, and it can be used as a drought mitigation strategy as well.

Keywords Mass diagram analysis   Non-potable water demand   Reservoir volume optimization   Rooftop catchment   Rainwater harvesting  
Received 2016-08-09 Revised 2017-02-20 Online: 2017-04-30 
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2017.05.003
Corresponding Authors: Zinat Komeh
Email: z.komeh@gmail.com
About author:


Abdulla, F.A., Al-Shareef, A.W., 2009. Roof rainwater harvesting system for household water supply in Jordan. Desalination 243(1-3), 195−207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.05.013.
Abu-Zreig, M., Hazaymeh, A., Shatanawi, M., 2013. Evaluation of residential rainfall harvesting systems in Jordan. Urban Water J. 10(2), 105−111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2012.709255.
Arya, S.L., Yadav, R.P., 2006. Economic viability of rainwater harvesting by renovating village ponds in small agricultural watershed of johranpur (HP). Agric. Econ. Res. Rev. 19, 71−82.
Assayed, A., Hatokay, Z., Al-zoubi, R., Azzam, S., Qbailat, M., Al-Ulayyan, A., Ma’ab, A.S., Bushnaq, S., Maroni, R., 2013. On site rainwater harvesting to achieve household water security among rural and peri-urban communication in Jordan. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 73, 72−77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.01.010.
Campisano, A., Modica, C., 2012. Optimal sizing of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting in Sicily. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 63, 9−16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2012.03.007.
Frasier, G.W., Myer, L.E., 1983. Handbook of Water Harvesting: Agricultural Handbook (No. 600). Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA.
Ghisi, E., Bressan, D.L., Martini, M., 2007. Rainwater tank capacity and potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in the residential sector of southeastern Brazil. Build. Environ. 42(4), 1654−1666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.02.007.
Ghisi, E., Tavares, D.D.F., Rocha, V.L., 2009. Rainwater harvesting in petrol stations in Brasilia: Potential for potable water savings and investment feasibility analysis. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 54 (2), 79−85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.06.010.
Hajani, E., Rahman, A.S., Al-Amin, M., Rahman, A., 2013. Reliability Analysis for rainwater harvesting system in peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney, Australia. In: 20th International Congress on Modeling and Simulation, Adelaide, pp. 2625−2631.
Hashim, H., Hudzori, A., Yusop, Z., Ho, W. S., 2013. Simulation based programming for optimization of large scale rainwater harvesting system: Malaysia case study. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 80(1), 1−9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.05.001.
Herrmann, T., Hasse, K., 1997. Ways to get water: Rainwater utilization or long-distance water supply? A holistic assessment. Water Sci. Technol. 36(8-9), 313−318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(97)00580-5.
Imteaz, M.A., Ahsan, A., Naser J., Rahman, A., 2011. Reliability analysis of rainwater tanks in Melbourne using daily water balance model. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 56(1), 80-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.008.
Jacob, M., 2007. The Eonomics of Rainwater Tanks and Alternative Water Supply Options: A Report Prepared for Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Australian Conservation Foundation and Environment Victoria. Marsden Jacob Associates, Melbourne.
Jones, M.P., Hunt, W.F., 2010. Performance of rainwater harvesting systems in the southeastern United States. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 54(10), 623−629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.11.002.
Kahinda, J., Taigbenu, A., Boroto, J., 2007. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa. Phy. Chem. Earth 32(15), 1050−1057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2007.07.007.
Memarian, H., Tavasoli, A., Tajbakhsh, M., Komeh, Z., Abbasi, A.K., Parsayi, L., 2015. Technical report: A guideline for designing and optimizing rainwater reservoirs in buildings (Case study: Golestan Province, Iran). Iran. J. Rainwater Catchment Syst. 5(4), 55−68, (in Persian).
Memarian, H., Pourreza Bilondi, M., Rezaei, M., 2016. Drought prediction using co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system, validation, and uncertainty analysis (Case study: Birjand, Iran). Theor.  Appl. Climatol. 125(3), 541-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-015-1532-9
Oweis, T., 2001. Water harvesting: Indigenous Knowledge for the Future of the Drier Environments. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo.
Palla, A., Gnecco, I., Lanza, L.G., 2011. Non-dimensional design parameters and performance assessment of rainwater harvesting systems. J. Hydrol. 401(1-2), 65−76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.02.009.
Price, K., 2014. Effects of watershed topography, soils, land use, and climate on base flow hydrology in humid regions: A review. Prog. Phys. Geogr. 35(4), 465–492. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309133311402714.
Qiang, Z., Yuanhong, L., Manjin, C., 2006. Effect of Low-rate Irrigation with Rainwater Harvesting System on the Dry farming. In: Proceeding of the 2nd International RWHM Workshop. Beijing.
Rahman, A., Dbais, J., Imteaz, M., 2010. Sustainability of rainwater harvesting systems in multistory residential buildings. Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 3(1), 73–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.73.82.
Richardson, L, Hairsine, P., Ellis, T.  2004. Water Farms: A Review of the Physical Aspects of Water Harvesting and Runoff Enhancement in Rural Landscapes. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Canberra.
Short, R., Lantzke, N., 2006. Increasing Runoff from Roaded Catchments by Chemical Application. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Adelaide.
Singh, P.K., Yaduvanshi, B.K., Patel, S., Ray, S. 2013. SCS-CN based quantification of potential of rooftop catchments and computation of ASRC for rainwater harvesting. Water Resour. Manag. 27(7), 2001–2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0267-6.
Stanton, D., 2005. Roaded Catchments to Improve Reliability of Farm Dams, Bulletin 4660. Department of Agriculture and  Food, Western Australia, Perth.
Sturm, M., Zimmermann, M., Schütz, K., Urban, W., Hartung, H., 2009. Rainwater harvesting as an alternative water resource in rural sites in central northern Namibia. Phys. Chem. Earth 34(13), 776–785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2009.07.004.
Su, M.D., Line, C.H., Chang, L.F., Kang, J.L., Lin, M.C., 2009. A probabilistic approach to rainwater harvesting systems design and evaluation. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 53(7), 393–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.03.005.
Subramanya, K., 2008. Engineering Hydrology, third ed. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp.166–174.
Tabatabai Yazdi, J., Ghodsi, M., Haghayeghi, S., Rahnavard, M., 2006. Rainwater harvesting as an approach for rainfall management in arid regions. In: The 2nd Conference on Water Resource Management, Isfahan (in Persian).
Tam, V., Tam, L., Zeng, S., 2010. Cost effectiveness and tradeoff on the use of rainwater tank: An empirical study in Australian residential decision-making. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 54(3), 178–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.07.014.
Teemusk, A., Mander, U., 2007. Rainwater runoff quantity and quality performance from a green roof: The effects of short-term events. Ecol. Eng. 30(3), 271–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.01.009.
Tubeileh, A., Bruggeman, A., Turkelboom, F., 2009. Effect of water harvesting on growth of young olive trees in degraded Syrian dryland. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 11(5), 1073–1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-008-9167-y.
Villarreal, E.L., Dixon, A., 2005. Analysis of a rainwater collection system for domestic water supply in Ringdansen, Norrkoping, Sweden. Build. Environ. 40(9), 1174–1184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.10.018.
Vohland, K., Boubacar, B., 2009. A review of in situ rainwater harvesting (RWH) practices modifying landscape functions in African drylands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 131(3), 119–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.01.010.
Watkins, K., Carvajal, L., Coppard, D., Fuentes, R., Ghosh, A., Giamberar¬dini, C., Johansson, C., Seck, P., Ugaz, C., 2006. Human Development Report 2006—Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty, and the Global Water Crisis. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
Yuan, T., Li, F.M., Liu, P.H., 2003. Economic analysis of rainwater harvesting and irrigation methods, with an example from China. Agric. Water Manag. 60(3), 217–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00171-3.
Zhang, M., Chen, H., Wang, J., Pan, G., 2010. Rainwater utilization and storm pollution control based on urban runoff characterization. J. Environ. Sci. 22(1), 40–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(09)600723.


Similar articles
1.Sameer SHADEED ; Jens Lange.Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine[J]. Water Science and Engineering, 2010,3(2): 132-143

Copyright by Water Science and Engineering