Water Science and Engineering 2013, 6(2) 164-177 DOI:   10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2013.02.005  ISSN: 1674-2370 CN: 32-1785/TV

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ammonia nitrogen
nitrate nitrogen
optimal drainage time
flooded paddy field
Article by Meng-Hua,.X

Nitrogen and phosphorus changes and optimal drainage time of flooded paddy field based on environmental factors

Meng-hua XIAO1, 2, Shuang-en YU*1, 2, Yan-yan WANG1, 2, Rong HUANG1, 2

1. Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China (Hohai University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China
2. College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University,Nanjing 210098, P. R. China


While many controlled irrigation and drainage techniques have been adopted in China, the environmental effects of these techniques require further investigation. This study was conducted to examine the changes of nitrogen and phosphorus of a flooded paddy water system after fertilizer application and at each growth stage so as to obtain the optimal drainage time at each growth stage. Four treatments with different water level management methods at each growth stage were conducted under the condition of ten-day continuous flooding. Results show that the ammonia nitrogen (NO3--N) concentration reached the peak value once the fertilizer was applied, and then decreased to a relatively low level seven to ten days later, and that the nitrate nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration gradually rose to its peak value, which appeared later in subsurface water than in surface water. Continuous flooding could effectively reduce the concentrations of  NH4+-N, NO3--N, and total phosphorus (TP) in surface water. However, the paddy water disturbance, in the process of soil surface adsorption and nitrification, caused NH4+-N to be released and increased the concentrations of NH4+-N and NO3--N in surface water. A multi-objective controlled drainage model based on environmental factors was established in order to obtain the optimal drainage time at each growth stage and better guide the drainage practices of farmers. The optimal times for surface drainage are the fourth, sixth, fifth, and sixth days after flooding at the tillering, jointing-booting, heading-flowering, and milking stages, respectively.

Keywords ammonia nitrogen   nitrate nitrogen   phosphorus   optimal drainage time   flooded paddy field  
Received 2011-11-21 Revised 2012-05-21 Online: 2013-04-05 
DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2013.02.005

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50839002), the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan Period (Grant No. 2006BAD11B06), and the Jiangsu Province Graduate Cultivation Innovative Project (Grant No. CXZZ11_0453).

Corresponding Authors: Shuang-en YU
Email: seyu@hhu.edu.cn
About author:


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